古代文明ppt课件

  • 发布时间:2013-09-02
  • 课件大小:22 KB
  • 所属栏目:基础类
  • 课件格式:.rar(压缩解压).ppt(使用格式)
  • 课件等级:古代文明ppt课件推荐等级为3星
  • 简略标题:古代文明
  • 应用环境:多媒体教学
  • 制作使用:PowerPoint
  • 应用阶段:历史

古代文明ppt课件介绍

古代文明ppt课件内容预览:Babylonians:year consists of 360days divided into 12lunar monthsEgyptians:year consists of 3610-day periodCosmologicalBeliefsBabylonians: The heaven was a hemispherical vault resting on waters surrounding the earth which is a flat disc.Egyptians: The world is a rectangular box where the slight concave earth is at the bottom. The sky at the top is supported by peaks of four mountains.GenesisThe world came into existence from a primeval chaos of water, The heaven,earth,air and other objects and forces are a result of the union of the male and female gods of chaos.Babylonians:younger gods used force to conquer natureEgyptians:gods are powerful without being violentClassicalCivilizationPre-Socratic NaturalPhilosophersNatural Philosophy inAthensGreek Science of the AlexandrianPeriodPre-Socratic periodnature more impersonal than that of previous civilizationThales -similar views of the universe as that of the ancient civilization but with the disappearance of the sun-godpptAnaximander -suggested fire as the fourth basic element;he said that the heavens were concentric about the earth;and living creatures rose from moist element as the sun evaporated them.Anaximenes-difference between elements were quantitativePre-Socratic con’t.Heraclitus -the idea of retribution to explain the world orderPythagoras and the PythagoreanSchoolfounded a school devoted to a life of mathematical speculationhis name bears the rule for the right trianglefirst to show the relation between the sound and the length of a stringnumbers provide the conceptual model of the universe. They are forms and images of natural objects.Pythagoras con’tThe universe was divided into earth,cosmos and olympos-these bodies are spherical-heavenly bodies move in circular and uniform motion-noble bodies move slower than the less noble onesThe idea that the earth is the center of the universe evolvedEmpedocles -theory of organic evolutionThe Atomists (Democritus)the universe consists of indivisible atoms that move in the voidman is the microcosm of the universetheir cosmology is entirely mechanistic,all things were pre-determinedthey did not use human analogies. For them,wrong doers are punished not for vengeance but a deterrence for further commission of crime.Natural Philosophy inAthensAnaxagoras - Ionian philosopher who believed heavenly bodies were of the same quality as the earth and not divine as what Pythagoreans believedcraft and philosophical traditions were separated while society grew and differentiatedSocrates -chief philosopher of the time. To him the task of the philosopher was the ordering of man and human society. He devoted his time to the problems of an ethical and political nature.Athens con’t.Plato -founded theAcademy-he suggested any philosophy is subordinate to ethics and politics-the universe was an uncreated chaos,the ordering being done by a creator who has a rational design of the world.Eudoxus -unified quantitative astronomy with cosmological interpretations

课件关键字:古代,文明

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